How do I secure all web pages in a directory?
If your home directory is yourlogin, create a file named .htaccess in your web directory that contains the following:
AuthUserFile /home/yourlogin/.htpasswd AuthGroupFile /dev/null AuthName ByPassword AuthType Basic <Limit GET POST> require user pumpkin </Limit>
Then in your home directory, type htpasswd -c .htpasswd pumpkin.
This will enable you to secure the directory so that only user pumpkin can enter this directory.
You may well want any of the user/password combinations you created in your .htpasswd file to allow access. Just say require valid-user instead of require user xxx in .htaccess and any of the users you created will be able to access the files.
Note that you want to store the .htpasswd file in your home directory so it is hidden from others. The one drawback to putting your .htpasswd file in your home directory is that you will have to slightly lower the security of your home directory. Go to /home and type chmod +x yourlogin. The web server needs execute permission on to read the .htpasswd file.
How do I create a secure password?
Make it at least 6 characters long. Include at least one number, capital letter, or punctuation mark in the name.
How do I create secure ftp directories?
To make a directory named direct that can only be accessed by userid fred, go to the directory above direct and type chown fred direct. If you wish for only fred to read and write in it, type chmod 700 direct. If you wish to allow others to read these files you can type chmod a+rx direct after typing the first command.
The above only works if you are fred. If you not, but fred is in your group, ask us to make a new group for you and fred, your2grp. Then you can chgrp your2grp direct, and chmod g=rwx direct. If you do not wish anyone else to be able to read these files, use chmod o-rx direct.
To list the access permissions of a file, type ls -l file, and for a directory, ls -ld directory. r=read access, x=execute access, w=write access. After the first letter or hyphen (for file type), the first three letters apply to you, the second three letters apply to your group, the last three letters apply to everyone else. Execute access enables you to run programs or enter directories.
Examples of using chmod:
PEOPLE PERMISSIONS u = the file's user (or owner) r = read access g = the file's group x = execute access o = others w = write access a = the user, the group, and others. chmod a+w = let everyone write to the file chmod go-r = don't let people in the file's group or others to read the file chmod g+x = let people in the file's group execute the file
How do I secure all pages in a cgi-bin directory?
To stop people from being able to read your scripts under all circumstances, end your CGI scripts with the name .cgi.
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